Validation of a defibrillation lead ventricular volume measurement compared to 3D echo

Background
There is increasing evidence that using frequent invasive measures of pressure in patients with heart failure results in improved outcomes compared to traditional measures. Admittance, a measure of volume derived from preexisting defibrillation leads, is proposed as a new technique to monitor cardiac hemodynamics in patients with an implantable defibrillator.

Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new ventricular volume sensor (VVS, CardioVol) compared with 3-dimenssional echocardiography (echo) in patients with an implantable defibrillator.

Methods
Twenty-two patients referred for generator replacement had their defibrillation lead attached to VVS to determine the level of agreement to a volume measurement standard (echo). Two opposite hemodynamic challenges were sequentially applied to the heart (overdrive pacing and dobutamine administration) to determine whether real changes in hemodynamics could be reliably and repeatedly assessed with VVS. Equivalence of end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume (SV) determined by both methods was also assessed.

Results
EDV and SV were compared using VVS and echo. VVS tracked expected physiologic trends. EDV was modulated −10% by overdrive pacing (14 mL). SV was modulated −13.7% during overdrive pacing (–6 mL) and increased over baseline +14.6% (+8 mL) with dobutamine. VVS and echo mean EDVs were found statistically equivalent, with margin of equivalence 13.8 mL (P <.05). Likewise, mean SVs were found statistically equivalent with margin of equivalence 15.8 mL (P <.05).

Conclusion
VVS provides an accurate method for ventricular volume assessment using chronically implanted defibrillator leads and is statistically equivalent to echo determination of mean EDV and SV.

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